Subsidizing construction of charging stations possibly a cheaper way to reach US sales goals than tax incentives. 

Researchers: Cities with more charging stations have more electric cars.

In 2011, an important national priority was declared. NYS is declaring the same in 2020 but they said: Put 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2015.

Since then, sales of plug-in electric vehicles have risen. Moreover, they continue to rise. However and yet they still pale. Especially when compared to sales of conventional vehicles.

Now in 2020, Ingolstadt, January 17, 2020. Of all companies, Audi goes more in. So with its journey. All to becoming a provider of entirely CO2-neutral premium mobility  Audi is making excellent progress at its own sites.

By the middle of 2022, the premium brand will equip one in ten parking spaces. All with a possibility to charge electric cars. In other words, EV charging infrastructure. Also that’s mostly accessible to the public. This independent concept is the largest charging infrastructure project. Especially carried out by a German employer.

The investment provides Audi with a head start. Especially in Europe. Also in terms of setup and operation expertise. Especially for the hardware and software of such EV charging infrastructure concepts. All the while also allowing the company to pilot a new business area of mobility.

Audi charging stations

Private transport too

In addition, Audi is setting up more than 4,500 EV charging infrastructure points. All for battery electric vehicles. Thereby contributing to the energy transition. Especially and most noteworthy in private transport.

In addition, the project manager for site charging. It is not only in charge of building the charging points. It is also the energy manager and software provider. That’s also for the comprehensive charging solution. All at the automotive manufacturer’s sites.

Moreover and at the main plant in Ingolstadt alone. Can you say there will be 3,500 charging points available?! Consequently in the final development.

There will also be 1,000 charging points in Neckarsulm. That’s just under 100 in Brussels and Győr.

Likewise, charging infrastructure will be built at the factory in San José Chiapa. So Audi already offers expansive charging capacities. That’s at the training centers at Munich Airport. All with a budget of up to EUR 100 million.

Now in 2013, comes the 50 kW Terra 53 DC fast charger. It meets both the SAE Combo and CHAdeMO standards. That’s to support the next wave. All of electric vehicles in North America.

So ABB is the leading power and automation technology group. It launched the Terra 53 for North America. This 50 kW DC fast charging station. It meets both SAE Combo and CHAdeMO standards. All for battery electric vehicles.

Moreover ABB has led the market. Again and all as the first manufacturer in the world. All to meet both standards. Thereby launching the harmonized product in Europe 2012.

Faster charging

Because the Terra 53 SAE Combo version for the Americas with the dual outlet, multi-standard version available. Also, with its convenient 15 to 30 minute charging time!

The Terra 53 is an ideal choice for highway and city centers. It’s fueling stations, fleets, and other infrastructure providers. Interests to tap into the growing EV charging revenue stream are also growing. The Terra 53 joins the ABB Terra family. Moreover of DC charging stations. These are ones that offer fast charging times with industry leading, business-to-business network solutions.

The launch of the Terra 53 demonstrates ABB’s leadership. Especially in supporting the latest developments. That’s in the EV industry in asustainable, future-proof way.

The power of data

The Terra 53 combines cost-effective hardware with functional design and state-of-the-art technology. The cloud connected Terra 53 is compatible with many charging networks and payment platforms through open standards-based interfaces. Such as the widely adopted Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP), enabling easy and secure payments via smart phone, credit card reader, parking management terminals, RFID and pin code access.

The Terra 53’s smart connectivity also allows remote monitoring. Also pro-active maintenance and functional upgrades. Thereby providing charging service providers with the tools necessary. All to gather detailed usage statistics and reports.  That’s as well as manage the status of each charger location in real-time.

BMW i3 charging up

Statistics from Argonne National Laboratory shows U.S. car dealers sold 97,101 electric vehicles in 2013 and 118,882 in 2014. Meanwhile U.S. car dealers sold more than 13 million passenger cars, light pickup trucks, SUVs and vans in 2013 and more than 14 million in 2014. All according to consequently

New Ford Mustang Mach-EAll told, U.S. car dealers have sold a several hundreds of thousands electric vehicles. Most are Tesla but all since they were introduced in 2010.

Now car companies are stepping up. All as a result of Tesla whipping ass on sales. That’s saying it for all other car companies. This also sets the background for the war about to go down.

All for an analysis of factors. Especially impacting the spread. I mean Tesla is the disruptor and now Rivian.

Investors and consumers: hand in hand


Among those are indirect network effects. All factors that impact the sale of electric vehicles. That’s beyond point of sale transactions. In this case, consumer reluctance to purchase electric vehicles. It may influence investor decisions to invest in the electric vehicle market and vice versa.

According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the high-purchase price gets part of the blame. All for consumer hesitancy to buy electric vehicles. Yet costs have dropped where a new Rivian truck platform being universally accepted! It creates harmony across all car companies’. People are also comparing the Cybertruck costs to an F-150.  Who would have thought?!

In addition, Rivian. Trucks galore and an electric vehicle manufacturer. It’s unveiled a highly anticipated Electric Adventure VehiclesTM. It’s the R1T, an all-electric pickup and the R1S an all-electric SUV.

Please also note and most noteworthy, this is also important because the F-150 will go Rivian. Also some serious amount of Amazon trucks will be built on this platform.

Colors, style and materials

Furthermore, Ford Mach-E. The Blue Oval is now meaning something other than politics.

The interplay between color and materials. Because it allows for Rivian vehicles to be differentiated. Especially in an over-saturated luxury-vehicle market. Sustainably sourced wood used throughout. As well as its natural finish. It contributes to a warm and inviting feel.

In addition, the wooden panel becomes the centerpiece. All of the vehicle’s interior. Because it’s housing the main center display and driver cluster. Thereby forgoing the usual function of wood. You know as a decorative trim.

The interior of the car evokes a feeling of home and comfort. All with the overall design drawing inspiration. Most interestingly from contemporary furniture. That’s as well as hiking and outdoor gear.

So they use high-end leathers and fabrics.  Passengers can then throw muddy boots and dirty gear. All with these materials. All that can be easily cleaned and maintained.

The R1TTM is a 5-passenger pickup truck. It was debuted at the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles. Most noteworthy, with 400+ miles in electric range. This is allowing also a wading depth of 1 meter.

In addition, lockable storage bins that can fit the bulkiest of gear.

Most importantly, the performance. As well as the precise control. That’s of quad-motor AWD. Because Rivian vehicles have been developed. All to help customers get out and explore the world. Most noteworthy, both vehicles are produced at Rivian’s manufacturing facility. Consequently located in Normal IL.

Rivian skateboard

Rivian electric truck

Skateboard Platform

The foundation most importantly of the R1T. That’s as well as the R1S all Rivian’s skateboard platform. One term car companies will be using for the battery pack, drive units, suspension, braking and thermal system. As well as the height of the wheel. Thereby leaving the space above for occupants and their gear is essential!

Rivian skateboard

It’s well known that many electric cars are more available and less expensive than their fossil-fuel powered counterparts. Electric vehicles range in price from about $15,000 to more than $90,000. Now we think the cost can be prohibitive.

Yet in the long run, electric vehicles can be cheaper to operate.

Sakar also points to another reason–consumers are not well acquainted with the technology. “Plug-in electric vehicles are a relatively new market. All coming on the scene a little more than six years ago,” he says.

In conclusion , Lang Tong and Shanjun Li, researchers at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y.  Finally, we can point to yet another indirect network effect. Consumers are usually less willing to buy without plugs. I mean and it’s because of a lack of public charging stations.

This is the chicken in a chicken and egg scenario. Investors who are less willing to build charging stations are the egg when there are so few electric vehicles on the road.

Ev charging stations

The chicken: More charging options could lead to more electric vehicle sales

Tong and Li, whose research is part of a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded INSPIRE project, contend limited infrastructure to support electric vehicles presents a major roadblock for greater acceptance.

The relatively small number of large-scale, public, vehicle-charging stations is still relatively an issue. It makes recharging electric vehicles inconvenient. I mean even if not impossible at times. Now a Tesla can do cross country. Yes. However what about every electric car.

Their analysis suggests that more charging stations are needed. Especially in parking garages in urban centers, parking lots in shopping malls and parking facilities. Even most noteworthy in apartment complexes and business sites. All to accommodate consumer demand for convenient electric vehicle refueling.

Using a data set of quarterly electric vehicle sales in 353 metro areas from 2011 to 2013 alone!  The researchers found cities with more charging stations also have more electric cars. In their analysis, a 10 percent increase in the number of charging stations per million people. Even a city would result in a 10.8 percent increase in the market share of electric vehicles in that city.

Tong is Cornell’s Irwin and Joan Jacobs Professor in Engineering. “As one might expect, there is a strong dependency between the growth of electric vehicle market share. Especially and the available charging options,” he says.

However, making more charging stations is not as simple. More noteworthy is the agreements needed to be secured between usually a municipality, charging station company and or a property owner. Insurance and questions can drag. Yet expansion must continue.

For goodness sakes and I mean as simple as opening more stations. The reason: there are different options for electric ‘fueling’ any one vehicle. If can be charged in more than one way, and different manufacturers may require different charging methods. In addition, an electric charge depends on and impacts the overall electric grid in the region.

Indeed, one major goal of Tong’s and Li’s INSPIRE project is to consider how to engineer transformative technologies for large scale charging of electric vehicles that can work with existing electric grids in a cost-effective way.



Currently, most owners plug their electric vehicles into a standard 120-volt, home outlet. It then charges the vehicle overnight. All to get the energy they need for a daily commute.

Others pay to also install a 240-volt charging station at home. That’s cutting charging times roughly in half.

Finally and a third alternative is to purchase an electric vehicle equipped with electrical connections for high, direct-current charging.

Now this can recharge an electric vehicle four to six times faster than an alternating current charger. However the cost for this choice typically runs $15,000 to $25,000.

The researchers believe more efficient charging options are needed. All that make electricity costs more palatable to consumers and would go a long way faster. This is what’s needed to speed up electric vehicle adoption.

“This project focuses on efficient ways of providing low-cost charging,” says Tong. For example, he and Li are investigating vehicle charging with solar panels on garages, examining possibilities for local energy storage and studying how to better utilize price differentials in the electricity market.

In addition, the researchers are working to develop efficient, large-scale charging facilities that provide another choice over normal home vehicle charging. To that end, they developed an Intelligent Energy Management System (IEMS) that optimizes the cost of vehicle charging at shopping malls or large parking garages where there are a number of cars that could simultaneously draw energy from the power grid.

The IEMS reduces costs and reduces strain on the grid by determining which cars to charge at a given time.


“Typically, consumers leave the car at the facility and expect charging to be completed at a later time,” Tong says, “which makes charging a deferrable demand.” A completed charge can be postponed. I mean until a later time when it most benefits the consumer. It also gives an operator the opportunity to choose which car to charge first and at what price.

“So, in optimizing which car to charge, you lower the cost of charging. Then you lower the cost to the service provider.”

Improvements such as these, the researchers believe, could lead to greater adoption of electric vehicles.

The egg: Electric vehicle charging could use a policy boost

The convenience and cost of recharging them is not the only factor that influences the purchase of electrical vehicles. So with costs of electric vehicles dropping is essential!

By contributing to sales of nearly half the electric vehicles sold!  All during the research period, some would consider the tax policy a success. Tong and Li take another view.

The researchers maintain the money, which amounted to some $1.05 billion in subsidies, could have been used to build more than 60,000 charging stations. That’s instead of giving it to electric vehicle consumers. That number of potential charging stations is significant. Because it represents about half the total number of gasoline stations in the United States.

So now we have increased EV chargers but there’s so much much more work to be done!

Moreover, based on their analysis, Tong, Li and their research colleagues say, 60,000 – 100,000 new charging stations are needed. It will lead to five times more electric vehicles sold.


However, they report the tax subsidies had a net positive effect. The subsidies during the 2011 to 2013 study period brought about $200 million in long-term environmental benefits.

Research is important to energy independence

Based on their research, Tong and Li find that allowing the competitive forces of supply and demand to determine market outcomes without government involvement may not be the best approach for electric vehicle sales. The economically efficient solution, they say, would employ government intervention to help consumers, firms and the environment.

“The goal of this project is to study the diffusion process,” says Tong, “and in particular the necessary charging station infrastructure that supports EV diffusion.” The research team aims to identify engineering, economic and policy issues that impact the survival and growth of the electric vehicle market.

NSF’s Directorates for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) and Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences (SBE) support the INSPIRE project: An Engineering and Economic Pathway to Electric Vehicle-Based Transportation. INSPIRE funds risky, potentially transformative research that does not fit into a single scientific field, but crosses disciplinary boundaries.

Tesla Model S

The exact results of this analysis may change a bit during the next few months as numbers are updated, says Li, but the main message will likely remain the same: more effective government action along with new cost-effective technologies may be needed to push electric vehicle sales over the one million mark.

Jianwei Xing, Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University and Yiyi Zhou, Department of Economics and College of Business, Stony Brook University, assisted in the research.

Source: National Science Foundation
January 29, 2015 and ABB

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